Consevation of St. Martin Church, VEDUGGIO
The conservation of prospects of the St. Martin Church
The restoration project of the main façade of the church of St. Martin Bishop provided for the recovery of the decorations of the external surfaces, in correspondence of the original architectural elements and backgrounds. The architectural surfaces before surgery (moldings, stone elements, plaster) were totally repainted. This intervention has been performed turn of the 80s of the twentieth century, and hid the natural appearance of the stone material and original plaster with a thin layer of plaster based on quartz. The return of the original surfaces, through careful and selected method of cleaning and removal of repainting, allowed the re-reading and identification of various stone types, until the recovery of the plaster original, rebuilding it faithfully wherever resulted incomplete or totally missing and giving back the correct reading of decorative architectural subjects: frames and statues.
Church of St. Martin Bishop – XVII / XVIII century.
HISTORICAL NOTES (by the designer: Dr. Arch. Mauro Sanvito)
The terrible disease of the plague of 1630 made victims everywhere, even in Veduggio; among these there was a certain Ambrose of Agostoni, who, in his will, left the heirs of Veduggio pastor, Father Maurizio Mauri, and the school of the SS. Sacrament of some perches of land. You may think that maybe from here arose the idea of building a new church. The old church also appeared to be insufficient to contain the increased number of faithful and poured conditions necessary to be sagging.
Therefore it was called Francesco Maria Richini, distinguished Milanese architect, one of the greatest personalities of architecture seventeenth-century Lombard, which is entrusted the task of carrying out the design of the new temple; it was in 1642, a date which could therefore be considered the start of construction. Promoter of the new building was the noble family Cazzulani.
For this purpose, a committee was formed, made up almost entirely of priests, including Don Domenico Cazzulani, “….. pious benefactor who took care of the building from the foundations of this church”, which appeared to be its treasurer. The work, however, proceeded very slowly, so that in 1683 the temple was not yet finalized. Don Cazzulani died May 29, 1684 and, in his will, leaving wrote: “I placed and order that are given 600 pounds at the venerable imperial building of the church of St. Martin in Veduggio and it dissolved the commitment each year, from the day my death forward, until the said church is not completed, according to the manufacture started and existing designs. ”
Don Cazzulani was buried at the gates of the chapel dedicated to the Virgin and, in 1744, over his tomb was placed a plaque in perpetual memory of the generous benefactor. After the death of Don Cazzulani we hurried to finish the church as soon as possible, at the expense of the building itself, which proved unfortunate in particular in the part of the chorus.
In documents relating to the pastoral visit of Cardinal Joseph Pozzobonelli occurred in 1759, is given a detailed description of the church: “… on the front of the church, built with stones, very comfortable and elegant, you can read the inscription: D. MARTINO Touraine Episcopo SACRUM. From either side of the front two niches each, for keeping four statues, which still wish “.
STONE – Molera is stone used for the execution of all the architectural details of the facade, was in poor condition and appeared fully covered by a film of acrylic painting. Below this it appeared decoesa, fractured and with different elements in serious danger of detachment (cartouche). presence of biodeteriogens (mosses and lichens).
In the initial stage it was decided to apply, spray or brush, a biocide in aqueous solution after removing the period of action of the product, the biodeteriogens by brushing. stone surfaces have been secured where it appeared the danger of detachment performing a consolidation punctual with threaded bolts and epoxy injections. on the parts where it is decided the removal and relocation for security reasons has performed an application of the consolidating product for impregnation and bonding in place, with polyester resin, after scoring pins sostegno.Avendo done what you are could fill in the gaps with injections of hydraulic lime mortar with low specific gravity-free soluble salts (PLM).
A consolidation intervention massive affected vessels placed at the top of the facade and at the level of the first order in architectural reconnaissance phase showed an oscillatory important. In addition to consolidating with threaded bolts and epoxy resin has necessitated a structural reinforcement through hoops foot vessel to give further support.
The cleaning was carried out with the application of the pickling brush subsequently removed with the aid of scrapers and spatole.La surface was then rinsed with water and brushes to remove residual product, or, where possible, with a high pressure cleaner controlled.
The fillings were made with mixed mortar, specially formulated, lime, and graded aggregates and compatible with the nature of the stone. The intervention did not have reconstructive nature except in those portions where the solution of continuity disturbed the reading of the modeled.
Balancing color was meant to sing and harmonize remanufactured parts in previous restorations, as the capitals concrete or portions of stone replaced, and create a layer of additional sacrifice on the parts plastered.
PLASTER – After removing the film of acrylic paint were several gaps and deficiencies in load tonachino.
After cleaning by scouring product that has allowed to remove the acrylic painting was carried out with thorough washing of the surfaces with a pressure controlled pressure and the mechanical removal of residues not removed with the first passage. Then you are restored portions of plaster sketchy with mortars based on lime and selected aggregates, and then recovering the last layer of tonachino with a shaving likely to return to the surface continuity. Having discovered during the investigation that originally plaster pilasters were made with a colored body has decided not to betray the original idea, adding to the mortar of lime and sand of natural pigments which have earned these elements a similar color to that of the stone. Another element that drew the idea were the direct incisions that divided the pilasters in horizontal sectors to suggest the segments, also proposed again in the intervention of restoration.
Balancing color of these surfaces has been to propose a glaze made with tone colors silicate, in order to better preserve the plaster from the elements.
At the conclusion of the intervention was applied a protective siloxane spray.
METAL ELEMENTS – In fairly good condition, gaps color revealing the underlying layer of red lead. The phenomena of corrosion, very inappropriate, interested mostly plumes above the lateral vessels.
After thorough dry cleaning using brushes in iron and brass were integrated parts corroded metal with stucco and painted over with a product with function passivating and protective at the same time.
BRONZE (statues and portal) – the statues placed above the main entrance had a look of general blurring of lines and surface run-off of rainwater from geodetic obvious. In the cavity on the back of the sculptures were several pigeon nests and organic deposits (guano) .The portal appeared devoid of patina in correspondence of the lower area, subjected to wear, particularly under the handles.
On the statues, after removing dry dust deposits were performed tests aqueous cleaning with a mild detergent and identified the contact times to suit the procedure was extended to all the sculptures. The cleanup was finished for microaeroabrasione with inert to 200 mesh. The surface was then treated with a protective hydrophobic solvent, which served as the basis for retouching painting made with the same product loaded with natural pigments. Remodeling has affected only those areas where the surface patina was compromised from the weather and where the lines geodetic compromised the readability of the work. The operation ended with the surface protection made with microcrystalline wax applied with a brush and pulled buffer. To avoid the intrusion of birds has been paid to the protection of the back of the statues a galvanized mesh.
For the portal, after careful removal of surface deposits Cleaning and subsequent washing with neutral product was carried out with the application of protective hydrophobic solvent and the retouching painting with natural pigments dissolved in the same. Protection of the surface carried out with microcrystalline wax applied with a brush and pulled buffer.
PROBLEMS OF CONSERVATION FOUND – side elevations
PLASTER – In good condition, better than the south. Deficiencies and exfoliation of the color corresponding to the downspouts. Widespread but minor cracks on both tables. The color appeared washed out on the north elevation.
WORKS CARRIED OUT: (lower order) washing with water, seal the cracks with mortar made of lime and marble dust or high-end mineral filler, one coat Base evening water-based dispersion resins and inert ends with a bridge between the old media and the new color, application of color silicate body expressly formulated by taking as the original colors.
(Higher order) sealing the cracks with mortar made of lime and marble dust or high-end mineral filler, applying a coat of water-leveling resin dispersion and fine aggregates act as a bridge between the old media and the new color, application of color silicate body specifically formulated using the example of the original colors.
Parish s. Martin Bishop – Veduggio
Restorer EROS ZANOTTI
Restorer EROS ZANOTTI
DESIGNER AND WORKS DIRECTOR
Dott. Arch. Mauro Sanvito
Superintendence for the architectural and landscape of Milan
Arch. Daniel Rancilio